Friday, March 20, 2020
Aims and objectives of the study Essays Aims and objectives of the study Essay Aims and objectives of the study Essay The primary research objective of this study is to determine and discuss the key success factors (KSFs) that would ensure the success of a Russian-foreign venture agreement. The study will in particular focus on the IJVs immersed in the oil and natural gas industry. To implement this research objective, the research study aims to examine the history and trends on international joint ventures (IJVs) in Russia, the problems they encounter, and the KSFs that will ensure the success of starting IJVs in Russia. The study will make use of a review of related literature and case study analysis. Even though the thesis will focus on IJVs involved in the oil and natural gas industry, it will cite various case studies of other companies in other industries as well, in order to get a more comprehensive understanding of effective strategies for successful IJVs in Russia. In answering the primary research objective of this research, the thesis will further explore the following secondary research objectives: To provide a background on joint ventures (JVs) and international joint ventures (IJVS) as a whole, particularly as to their advantages and disadvantages. To understand the role of IJVs in RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s gas and oil industry. To highlight the problems that IJVs encounter in Russia which contribute to the high failure rate of many of these business arrangements. To identify the key success factors (KSF) that determine the success of IJVs in Russia, through case study analysis of IJVs in Russia. To examine the importance of the identified key success factors and the contribution of each factor to the success of IJVs. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This research study is relevant because it will seek to improve the success rate of international joint ventures (IJVs) investing in the Russian oil and gas industry by identifying the key success factors (KSF) that will ensure such success. The Russian oil and gas sector generated total revenues of $123. 5 billion in 2005. In 2003, the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s energy exports accounted for one-fourth of RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s gross domestic product (GDP), opening the floodgates to droves of foreign investors excited to cash in on this booming industry (Energy Information Administration, 2005). Russia has also overtaken Saudi Arabia as the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading oil and fuel exporter (Datamonitor, 2006). A huge bulk of investments in the Russian oil and gas industry comes from IJVs arrangements where many organizations set up jointly-owned business entities while at the same time maintaining their independence from each other (Johnson Scholes, 1999). Major American, Japanese, Norwegian, and English petroleum organizations have set up IJVs with local organizations in Russia, but despite the numbers, the failure rate of IJVs have by far outnumbered their success rates (Katsioloudes Isichenko, 2007). The alarming rate of failure of numerous IJVs in Russia poses as a serious threat to the development of the Russian energy industry, and on the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economic growth as a whole (Katsioloudes Isichenko, 2007). As such, this thesis is significant in that it will seek to provide recommendations that may help in reversing the increasing failure rates for IJVs in RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s energy industry. The findings of this research study can serve as guidelines that will help to ensure the success of an IJV in Russia, which in turn will contribute to the further development of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s gas and oil industry, and ultimately, to the improvement of the Russian economy as a whole. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY A joint venture (JV) constitutes a separate legal entity which is jointly-owned and jointly-managed by the two or more parent organizations, or the Ã¢â¬Å"venturers. Ã¢â¬ As a general rule, a JV must have the following essential characteristics: 1) a separately identifiable joint venture entity; 2) an ownership interest in such entity by each joint venturer; and 3) an active management involvement, or deliberate abdication of the right to such involvement, by each joint venturer (Eco-Legal and Management Advisory Services Limited, 2003). There are two kinds of joint ventures: the equity joint venture and the contractual joint venture. Joint ventures involve a 50/50 participation of both venture partners, wherein each contributes 50 percent of the equity in return for 50 percent participating control. The degrees of ownership and control, as well as the expected returns, are results of negotiations between the two contracting parties. Problems may arise at this point when parties negotiate their expected valuations or returns, particularly if the joint venture happens to be in a country with a controlled economy or when one party is contributing land or goods and that party happens to be from a country where such land or goods may not have readily ascertainable free market values (Eco-Legal and Management Advisory Services Limited, 2003). There are certain advantages to this 50/50 arrangement, the most obvious is that both partners are equally at risk and have equal rights and obligations as to each other. The Eco-Legal and Management Advisory Services Limited (2003) further provides for the following advantages for organizations that enter into JV agreements: A company with insufficient resources may utilize the financial resources of another company with similar needs or interests, especially with regard to embarking on a particular project. In such a case, both companies will bear the share the potential risks involved in the new venture and reduce the burden of investment costs since all expenses are split into two between the two companies involved. The parties may extend their capabilities and business opportunities by pooling together their resources, technology, and expertise. Either one of the parties may expand its market power or even expand into a foreign market with which it has no familiarity. A JV agreement is especially helpful because the venturer who is located in the country or area where the other venturer wishes to expand is more familiar with local business customs and trends. The challenges in forming JVs are not limited to those challenges experienced for Russian JVs and international joint ventures (IJVs) alone. Studies show that a majority of large JVs encounter serious financial or managerial problems within the first two years of operation. Some common difficulties encountered by joint ventures in general are listed below (Hewitt Associates, 2008): The philosophy governing expectations and objectives of the joint venture agreement is unclear. There is an imbalance in the level of investment and expertise brought to the joint venture by the two parent organizations. The senior leadership and management teams for the joint venture receive inadequate identification, support, and compensation. The JV partners possess disparate, and usually conflicting, organizational cultures and operational styles. The JVÃ¢â¬â¢s size is modest compared to the two parent organizations. Thus, poor or unclear leadership, different corporate cultures, and a poor integration process contribute greatly to the failure of JVs, by analogy, of IJVs as well. Similar to the challenges outlined by Hewitt Associates (2008), the Eco-Legal and Management Advisory Services Limited (2003) provide for the following similar challenges that may lead to the failure of JV agreements: In sum, entering into a joint venture agreement is definitely not for the faint of heart. JVs offer a host of benefits to the parties involved, but both parties cannot simply enter into an agreement without carefully weighing out the risks involved and coming to terms with goals, expectations, and capabilities of each party. What makes it especially harder for JVs and IJVs in Russia is that in addition to the challenges that JVs in general have to deal with Ã¢â¬â whether or not they are located in Russia Ã¢â¬â they also have to deal with other problems that are unique to the Russian business industry and economic milieu.
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
7 HUGE signs you aced your interview Sometimes itÃ¢â¬â¢s all too apparent when a job interview hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t gone well- maybe thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a cringeworthy statement you wish you could take back, or an icy glance from an interviewer who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to find your small talk very charming. But what differentiates an okay job interview from one youÃ¢â¬â¢ve just rocked? Here are some key signals that youÃ¢â¬â¢ve had a great interview. 1. The interviewer has positive body languageInterviewers are professionals (ideally!), but theyÃ¢â¬â¢re also human. Sometimes the earliest indicator that things are going well is the immediate physical feedback you get. Is the person engaged in the conversation, or is she just asking rote questions? Are you getting a lot of positive affirmation, like nods and smiles or verbal agreement? This isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a foolproof way to gauge your progress (hey, some people are just very friendly), but itÃ¢â¬â¢s a great first clue.2. The interviewer asks you about your interest in the jobIf the interviewer asks you point blank if youÃ¢â¬â¢d be interested in the job, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not quite a job offer, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s a very positive sign. It may mean the person thinks that youÃ¢â¬â¢re a good candidate and they want to test out whether youÃ¢â¬â¢re serious about it before moving you to the next step. If the interviewer asks you about where else youÃ¢â¬â¢re interviewing, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s also a good sign. If they werenÃ¢â¬â¢t interested in you, they probably wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be trying to gauge the competition or scoping out whether youÃ¢â¬â¢re likely to accept a potential job offer.3. You set up a second interview on the spotThe signs donÃ¢â¬â¢t get much clearer than this one. If they actively invite you back for another round of interviews, youÃ¢â¬â¢re in very good shape. But donÃ¢â¬â¢t forget that while a second interview is a great omen, it still means another round of prep. Aft er all, there could be other candidates coming back for a second interview as well, so itÃ¢â¬â¢s important not to go into the next interview thinking you have a job offer on the table just yet.4. You get a personal tourIf your interviewer brings you around the office to show you the space and introduce you to people, or calls people in to meet you, it shows theyÃ¢â¬â¢re already thinking of you as a potential member of the team.5. The interview goes longA short interview isnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily a dealbreaker, but if your interview goes longer than the allotted time it likely means that the interviewer is interested enough to have a meaningful, in-depth conversation about the position and your qualifications for it. Particularly if youÃ¢â¬â¢re meeting with a single interviewer, a long conversation points to a great level of engagement.6. The interviewer goes into day-to-day job specificsMost interviewers will give an overview of the open position to make sure you understand the job. But if the interviewer takes the time to do a deep dive into the jobÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibilities and integrates you into the discussion (Ã¢â¬Å"you would be doing X,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"you would be leading this project,Ã¢â¬ etc.), it suggests they already see you as a good fit.7. Your thank you note nets a responseNo matter what, you need to send a thank you note as a follow-up to your interview. The interviewer, however, is not obligated to respond in any way. If you send your thank you and you get a response (especially a quick one), it shows that your interviewer is engaged in the process and likely had a positive reaction to your conversation. Bonus points if there are specific references to a point you discussed, because that can help you tell if itÃ¢â¬â¢s just an automatic response on their part or a genuinely warm reaction. Tone is everything here.The waiting game after an interview can be one of the most frustrating parts of any job hunt. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re able to walk out of the room with any of these positive outcomes behind you, it can help reassure you that things really did go well, and that youÃ¢â¬â¢re on the right track for a second interview- or maybe even that job offer.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Urban tourism, heritage and culture - Essay Example Cultural and heritage centers are remarkable for contributing towards tourism industry, and generating income to towns and communities. Ã ¡ultures and heritages may be remarkable for construction of historical narratives regarding a culture, or concerning particular communities. In most cases, promotion of heritage centers and cultural heritages are not meant for tourism, but to preserve identity of communities for long periods. This heritage may be a form of symbolism, representing spectacular events, which may have shaped the lives and history of the people concerned. The main aspect in conservation of heritages is to maintain these symbols, and the unique characteristics of the preserved heritages are responsible for attracting both local and international tourists, as unique images of identity. Attraction of tourists to heritage sites leads to increased income generated through tourism activities in these regions, and urban tourism may result from this tourist activities. Many a uthorities have therefore reconditioned cities and towns near heritage centers to attract more tourists with an aim of not only preserving heritages, but to increase income in the tourism industry. In this report, the Amiens Cathedral of Notre- Dame in France will be considered as a precious heritage center that has been recognized and listed under UNESCOÃ¢â¬â¢s global heritage centers. Historical Background Amiens Cathedral, located in the heart of Picardy is among the largest Gothic churches constructed in the 13th century. The cathedral particularly stands unique in its construction, coherence of its plan, amazing fine displays of sculptures in the principle facade and the South transept, among other spectacular aspects (UNESCO, 2012). The cathedral was initiated in 1152 under the auspices of Bishop Evard, who made huge collections from clergy and people for this noble function (Brown 1846, 100). The cathedral was designed by Robert Lusarche as the architect, but the bishop and Lusdarche did not live to see the completion of the Cathedral that was completed in 1288 (Brown 1846, 100). However, the cathedral was first designed under the Romanesque architecture but was destroyed by fire in 1218, making reconstruction to be carried out in 1220 (UNESCO, 2012). Many of the statues and decorations in the cathedral were completed around 14th century; many years after the completion of the cathedral. The Amiens Cathedral is very different from other cathedrals and buildings in England, and other European locations in many aspects; including both style and design (Brown 1846, 101). This Cathedral is documented to be more advanced and perfect compared to other Gothic architectural works that were prominent during this period (Brown 1846, 101). The French cathedral is in many aspects different from many other cathedrals designed according to the Gothic architecture in this period, making it the most remarkable Gothic architectural work in history. The cathedral was r ecognized in 1972 by UNESCO under the World Heritage Site Agreement, but was to be officially listed as a world heritage in 1981 (Durand 2012, 9).This recognition changed the entire Amiens area, with the town being reconfigured as a touristÃ¢â¬â¢s destination, leading to growth of more tourism infrastructure, consequently attracting thousands of tourists in this area, considering that France is one of the global leading tourist destinations today. Heritages leading to urban tourism Jenkins (1999) uses the word destination image a number of times and in different contexts. The image of any tourist destination is firstly designed in the cognitive opinion of the events, typical features, and character of the place. Increasing the information related to the image of such cities or places through organic means leads to enhanced clarity as Jenkins further elaborates, and this enhanced clarity leads to more tourists flocking these
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Indirect Theories and Moral Equality Theories on Kindness to Non-Human Animals - Essay Example This means that despite them being non-human animals that Ã¢â¬Å"are not rational, self-conscious beings capable of grasping the moral lawÃ¢â¬ ( 63 ), they still have intrinsic moral worth. According to Kant, animals are not included in the human territory because only humans are capable of creating and understanding moral laws. This also means that while a human, being an Ã¢â¬Å"end in itselfÃ¢â¬ ( 64 ) are not indebted to animals, kindness towards animals Ã¢â¬Å"will help develop good character in us and help us treat our fellow human beings with greater considerationÃ¢â¬ ( 63 ). Aside from making humans less likely to be cruel to other humans, kindness to animals makes human beings fulfill the indirect duties to humanity, which is a categorical imperative. Kant provides good examples of this claim. A dog, for example, may not have rights like humans do, but letting the dog suffer is a reflection of lack of humanity. Kind treatment of the dog, especially one that has been faithful over time, in not necessarily a human beingÃ¢â¬â¢s duty towards the animal, but a human beingÃ¢â¬â¢s duty of Ã¢â¬Å"humanity which it is his duty to show towards mankindÃ¢â¬ ( 64 ). Cruelty to animals, according to Kant, reflects in humans an immoral tendency that might be inflicted to fellow humans. However, despite the need to be kind to animals, they should not be treated as ends in themselves. Human beings Ã¢â¬Å"serve(s) the will as the objective ground for its self-determinationÃ¢â¬ ( 63 ), yet this is not the same with non-human animals. Animals are a means to an end, and that end is man. This means that while man does not have the right to use other people in ways to serve another humanÃ¢â¬â¢s end, the case is not the same with animals. Still, one must consider that kindness towards animals is an imperative that will ultimately serve the end purpose that is humanity. Human beings require respect because they are sovereign and have freedom. Such autonomy is important and a creature can only have it by having free will. Since animals do not have the capacity for reason and are not guided by consciousness, they do not really have free will, and are thus not autonomous. Kant has a strong point when he says that one can ask, Ã¢â¬Å"Why do animals exist?Ã¢â¬ ( 64 ). However, the question Ã¢â¬Å"Why does man exist?Ã¢â¬ is meaningless ( 64 ). It seems the argument is that animals exist for a specific purpose, and one of those purposes is to serve the goals of man. KantÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments make strong points. However, some amendments may be done according to some principles of consideration. While animals do not have the capacity for reason, are not guided by consciousness, do not really have free will, and are not autonomous, humans should act with Ã¢â¬Å"consideration in satisfying (their) needs and interestsÃ¢â¬ ( 76 ). Singer quotes Bentham: Ã¢â¬Å"The day may come when the rest of the animal creation may acquire those rights wh ich never could have been withholden from them but by the hand of tyrannyÃ¢â¬ ( 76 ). Does this mean that consideration of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and interests apply to animals as well, and that giving animals rights is utterly necessary to reach this goal? To answer this requires not only a slight reconstruction of KantÃ¢â¬â¢s views, but of SingerÃ¢â¬â¢s as well. What is required here is to determine if animals have morally significant needs and interests. The emphasis on moral significance means that withholding such could inflict unnecessary harm and suffering to non-human animals. Do animals have welfare or well-being that could benefit or be harmed by the non-existence of animal rights? It could be possible. However, saying this about a creature lacking logic, consciousness, and free will is tantamount to saying the same regarding a, say, car. Do animals have needs and interes
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Study of Impact Shocks in Fencing Abstract Fencing is a high intensity sport involving dynamic movements which expose the musculoskeletal system to high impact forces that may lead to overuse injuries. One of the most frequently used high impact movements is the lunge. With many different types of sports footwear available providing different levels of midsole cushioning, selecting the most suitable for a sport may be a factor in preventing the onset of injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the magnitudes of the transient axial impact shock experienced at the tibia between traditional fencing shoes and standard athletic footwear during the impact phase of the fencing lunge. Peak tibial shock was measured in 19 male fencers in 4 different footwear conditions using an accelerometer placed on the distal aspect of the tibia. The standard footwear resulted in significant reductions in peak impact shock in comparison to the traditional fencing shoes. Thus the reduction in impact shock found suggests that running or squas h specific footwear may reduce overuse injury occurrence. However, despite this, the majority of participants indicated that they preferred fencing specific footwear for fencing. The results of this study suggest that there is justification for a re-design of fencing shoes. Introduction Competitive fencing (foil, sabre and epee) has experienced a rapid increase in participation rates during the past decade (Harmer, 2008). The sport places unique demands on the athlete and is characterised by asymmetry and the incidence of rapid motions which have the potential to generate large forces (Geil, 2002). In particular, the frequently used lunge which is the basis of most attacking motions is a high impact movement (Kopetka Stewart, 2005). The expansion in participation combined with the biomechanical demands of the sport has led to enhanced awareness of the incidence of injuries associated with fencing. Nonetheless, prospective, epidemiological studies of the incidence of repetitive strain and overuse injuries in fencing are scarce. As a result, it is difficult to draw dependable conclusions regarding the etiology of fencing injuries and their prevention based on impartial information (Roi Bianchedi, 2008). However existing studies indicate that overuse injuries account for approximately 30% of injuries that interfere with training (Carter et al., 1993). The majority of injuries are confined to the lower extremities (e.g., stress fractures, impingement enthesopathies of the patellar tendon and tibia and plantar fascia) associated with fencing (Harmer, 2008, Wild et al., 2001; Zemper Harmer, 1996) characteristic of dynamic activities involving high velocity change in momentum actions (Harmer, 2008). No apparent data has been published providing information regarding the total number of lunges executed during a competitive bout. However, Roi and Bianchedi (2008) suggest that there are anywhere between 66 and 210 attacks (depending on the weapon) during a competition, which given the lunges function as the most common attacking mechanism, it appears that fencers will be regularly subjected to the impact forces imposed by the lunge. One of the characteristics of the foot impacting the surface during a lunge is a rapid change in velocity of the foot and this velocity reaches zero upon foot placement in a short period of time (Whittle, 1999). This impact leads to the transmission of an axial transient shock wave through the body and carries with it the potential for injury. It is important to recognise that loading is necessary for maintenance of cartilage, bone, and muscle health (Stone, 1988). An optimal loading window for tissue strength can be characterized by frequent impacts of certain magnitude, duration, and frequency. Movements beyond the optimal loading window can lead to the breakdown of body tissue and overuse injuries (Hardin et al., 2003). The magnitude of the impact shock is commonly measured using accelerometers. Accelerometers are traditionally placed onto the skin overlying the tibia to quantify the transient impact shockwave during motion. Despite the consensus that soft tissue interferes with the acceleration recording of underlying bone, the utilization of skin mounted devices is considered appropriate provided they are lightweight and rigidly attached to the overlying skin (Shorten and Windslow, 1992). This method has been used to examine the cushioning properties of athletic footwear (Lake Greenhalgh, 2005) and better differentiates between impact conditions compared to data acquired using a force platform (Lafortune Hennig, 1992). The high impact nature of the lunge implies that the lower extremities may be at risk from overuse injuries. To date there is no information available regarding the potentially detrimental effect of the impact accelerations experienced during this movement. However, epidemiological studies suggest that a relationship exists between the magnitude of the transient shockwave and the etiology of a number of lower extremity overuse injuries (Nigg Segesser, 1992). Therefore with a significant number of lunges being undertaken by a fencer and the potential connection between the magnitude of the impact shockwave and the incidence of overuse injuries makes it important to investigate the shock attenuation properties of fencing footwear. The 1992 U.S Fencing Association review of the factors that may contribute to fencing injuries indicates that of the three primary areas for prevention, deficient equipment and facilities may be responsible for as many as 28% of the injuries associated with fencing, with ineffective footwear forming a significant component (Carter et al., 1993). The review noted problems with fencing shoes citing inadequate cushioning as well as the lack of footwear designs that could shield against the high impact nature of the sport, particularly lunging. To reduce injury, Zemper and Harmer (1996) have suggested a redesign of fencing shoes. The primary function of athletic footwear as described by Stacoff et al., (1988) is to provide shock attenuation. The properties of athletic footwear have been linked to the prevention of overuse injuries. With many different types of sports footwear available providing different levels of midsole cushioning, selecting the most suitable for a sport can be vital in preventing the onset of injury. Fencing equipment retailers in the UK offer very few options for specific footwear, with only 2 major brands on offer (Adidas and Hi Tec). It also appears that the fencing shoe has been more specifically designed for the function of the trail foot to enable good grip on the piste as well as maximising the life span of the shoe if dragging the back foot, which is common in fencing. The limited availability of specific shock attenuating footwear to the fencer may predispose fencers to overuse injuries. The majority of studies analyzing the influence of different footwear conditions on impact kinetics have focused on running. Therefore, the aim of the present study was twofold. First, to assess the magnitude of the peak axial tibial transient accelerations associated with the lunge in fencing to provide practitioners with information regarding the potential causes of injury. Secondly, to compare two specific fencing shoes with two standard sports shoes (running and squash) with regards to their shock attenuating properties during the lunge movement. In particular, it was predicted that peak axial transient accelerations were lower in shoes which have been particularly developed for shock absorbing qualities (running and squash shoes) in comparison to fencing shoes during the stance phase of the fencing lunge. Methods Participants Nineteen male (17 right handed and 2 left handed) competitive fencers with a minimum of 2 years experience (Age 25.6 + 8.3 years; Height 1.78 + 0.5 m; Weight 76.8 + 9.0 kg) comprising a mixture of the foil (n=2), epee (n=15) and sabre (n=1) disciplines, volunteered to take part in this study. All were injury free at the time of data collection and completed an informed consent form. The procedure was approved by a university ethical board. Materials Each participant was fitted with four pairs of shoes for the study. The shoes were the same for each participant; they differed in size only (sizes 9 and 10 mens UK sizes) and consisted of a conventional running shoe (Saucony Grid forum), squash shoe (Hi-Tec squash indoor) and fencing shoes (Hi-Tec blade) and (Adidas en guard). A tri-axial (Biometircs ACL 300) accelerometer sampling at 1000Hz was utilized to measure axial accelerations at the tibia. The device was mounted on a piece of lightweight carbon-fibre material. The combined weight of the accelerometer and mounting instrument was 9g. The voltage sensitivity of the signal was set to 100mV/g, allowing adequate sensitivity with a measurement range of Ã ± 100 g. The device was attached securely to leading leg on the distal anterio-medial aspect of the shank 8 cm above the medial maleolus in alignment with its longitudinal axis. This location was selected as the boniest prominence of the distal tibia in accordance with the Nokes et al., (1984) conclusions to improve the mechanical coupling of the accelerometer mounting to the tibia and reduce artefact due to interposing soft-tissue. The accelerometer was positioned so that acceleration was measured in the direction up the tibia (Figure 1). Strong adhesive tape was placed over the device and the lower leg to avoid overestimating the peak positive acceleration due to tissue artefact. The device was attached as close to the tibia as possible, the skin on overlying the bone itself was stretched thus ensuring a more rigid coupling between accelerometer and tibia. Furthermore, adhesive tape was positioned over the device itself to ensure it was maintained in a fixed position along the longitudinal axis of the tibia. The acceleration signal was sent to a Biometrics data logger with a 2 GB memory card. The data logger was fastened securely to a lightweight backpack to reduce movement of the device during trials. Procedure The fencers completed a suitable warm-up and were allowed two minutes to familiarize themselves with the experimental protocol and footwear condition prior to the commencement of data collection. They were then required to complete ten lunges hitting a dummy with their weapon in each footwear condition whilst returning to a starting point (pre-determined by each participant prior to the commencement of data capture) following each trial to control lunge distance. Each trial was comprised of a lunge where contact between the sword and dummy defined a successful outcome. The starting point for the movement was adjusted and maintained. The order in which the different footwear conditions were worn was randomized. Upon conclusion of the data collection participants were asked to subjectively indicate which shoe they preferred for fencing. Kinetic data was quantified/processed using Biometrics data-log software. The stance phase of each trial was acquired from each accelerometer signal for analysis. Peak positive axial tibial acceleration was defined as the highest positive acceleration peak measured during the stance phase after a 60Hz 1st order low pass filter had been implemented in accordance with the Lake and Greenhalgh (2005) recommendations. The mean values of the footfalls per participant/condition for the axial component of the acceleration signal was quantified and used for statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics were calculated for each variable including means and standard deviations. Differences between footwear conditions were examined via a within subjects repeated measures analysis of variance with significance accepted at the p Results A statistical power analysis of pilot data was conducted in order to reduce the likelihood of a type II error and determine the minimum number of participants needed for this investigation. It was found that the sample size was sufficient to provide more than 80% of statistical power in the experimental measure. Figure 2 provides the mean and standard deviations for the peak tibial accelerations for the four different shoe types. The Mauchlys sphericity assumption was violated and as such the degrees of freedom of the F statistic was adjusted via the Greenhouse Geisser correction. The Shapiro-Wilk statistic for each footwear condition confirmed that the data was normally distributed. The analysis of variance was significant (F (1.97, 35.52) = 16.31; P Discussion The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the magnitude of the transient acceleration between traditional fencing shoes and standard athletic footwear during the impact phase of the fencing lunge. The results of this study support our hypothesis, in that the magnitudes of the axial impact shockwaves were significantly lower in both the running and squash shoes compared to the traditional fencing footwear. The transient shockwave is linked to the development of a variety of overuse injuries (Whittle, 1999). It is essential to acknowledge the link between the magnitude of these forces and overuse injuries, as the frequency of these conditions can be reduced by attenuating the impact magnitude (Whittle, 1999). Therefore the significant reduction in impact shock found would suggest that running/squash footwear may assist in the reduction of overuse injury occurrence. Interestingly, despite the higher impact magnitude and concerns regarding the potential development of overuse injuries, the majority of participants indicated that they preferred fencing specific footwear for fencing. This finding agrees with those of Geil (2002) who hypothesized that this finding centred on plantar sensory proprioceptive mechanisms, whereby the feel of the fencing piste underneath the foot is reduced in shoes that offer a high degree of midsole cushioning. Geil (2002) suggested that footwear may influence fencing performance. They noted that increased midsole cushioning and travel of the foot during compression may lead to slower motion of the feet, which in turn could contribute to diminished velocity of the weapon hand, reducing the overall execution quality of the movement itself. Based on these findings it appears that midsole cushioning properties should play only a partial role in the design characteristics of an effective fencing shoe. Fencing involves a number of movement strategies in addition to the lunge, and as such shoe designs must cater to this. Fencers like most athletes require sure footing during competition; as such footwear designs must deliver adequate traction to provide stability during lunging, attacking and retreating motions. Furthermore, the medial forefoot of the trail shoe is an area traditionally subjected to high abrasion forces and thus heavy wear. Manufacturers should therefore focus attention on developing more resistant materials for this purpose to prolong the lifespan of the shoe. Whilst shock attenuation is the primary function of midsole cushioning, the elastic energy stored and recovered by cushioning systems has been proposed as a mechanism by which the oxygen cost of movement can be reduced. Given the aerobic demands the sport of fencing places on the athlete (Roi Bianchedi, 2008) additional research should focus on this factor as it may serve to slow the onset of fatigue and improve performance. The results of this study however, suggest that there is some justification for the Zemper and Harmer (1996) recommendations regarding the re-design of fencing shoes due to the demonstrated high transient impact forces on the front foot during the lunge. The primary design dilemma facing footwear manufacturers is to include features that would serve to attenuate the large impact forces and help reduce overuse injuries. At the same time, the design characteristics should also provide the fencer with an adequate feel for the fencing piste beneath the foot. The severe angle between foot-segment and ground on initial contact is also significant when designing the shoe. The shoe cushioning system must therefore provide protection in the extreme rear of the heel, an area not normally associated with consistent high impact forces in other sports. The obvious asymmetry of the sport presents a challenge to footwear manufacturers and arguments can be made for the development of asymmetrical footwear designs. Several different surfaces in fencing are used. Surface stiffness can have a significant influence on the magnitude of the impact shock during landing (Kim et al., 1994). This study was conducted during training sessions on a training surface as opposed to a traditional piste used during competition thus the results obtained may not adequately represent actual competition. During competition a hard floor can be used, as well as a metallic piste (either a cloth placed over the hard floor or a hard metallic piste). Future research should therefore concentrate on the magnitude of the impact shock during competition on a true fencing piste. Limitations Accelerometry is a complicated approach and methodological problems can affect the efficacy of collected data (Lake and Greenhalgh 2005). The magnitude of the signal obtained from the accelerometer is dependent on the mounting interaction, making cross study comparisons difficult. Soft tissue artefact can also influence the acceleration recording of underlying bone (Light et al., 1980). Attaching the device directly to bone represents the most accurate method of measuring impact shock and further work is necessary to determine the efficacy of the less traumatic skin mounting technique. The device signal is also reliant on the centripetal acceleration due to angular motion of the shank in the sagittal plane during ground contact (Lafortune and Hennig 1991). Lake and Greenhalgh (2005) noted that despite the application of a distally mounted device, correction for angular motion may still be necessary. Further research should be conducted to investigate the necessary signal corrections for angular motion. Another potential limitation/restriction of this study is that the results obtained are entirely specific to the footwear and ground surface conditions, any variation in these parameters would most likely cause changes to the participants fencing kinetics/kinematics. In addition this study analyzed the lunge motion only. The lunge represents a high impact motion; however there are other movements of lower intensity which may still be important in terms of the development of overuse injuries. Therefore, additional research is necessary regarding the influence of footwear on the magnitude of the transient shockwave during different fencing movements before appropriate prescriptions of fencing footwear can be made. References Carter, C., Heil, J., and Zemper E. (1993). What hurts and why Data from the 1992 USFA Fencing Injury Survey shows some common culprits. American Fencing. 43, p 16-17. Geil, M.D. (2002). The Role of Footwear on Kinematics and Plantar Foot Pressure in Fencing. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 18, p 155-162. Harmer, P.A. (2008). Getting to the point: injury patterns and medical care in competitive fencing. Current Sports Medicine Reports. 7, 303-307. Kim, W., Voloshin, A.S., and Johnson S.H. (1994). Modelling of the heel strike transients during running. Human Movement Science, 13, 221-244. Kopetka, B., and Stewart, S.L. (2005).The kinematic determinants of speed in the fencing lunge. (Part 1). Journal of Sports Sciences, 2, 105. Lafortune, M., and Hennig, E. (1991). Contribution of angular motion and gravity to tibial acceleration. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 23, 360-363. Lafortune, M. A., Hennig, E. M. (1992). Cushioning properties of footwear during walking: accelerometer and force platform measurements. Clinical Biomechanics, 7, 181-184. Lake, M.J. (2000). Determining the protective function of sports footwear. Ergonomics, 43, 1610-1621. Lake, M.J., and Greenhalgh, A. (2005). Impact shock measurements during running correction for angular velocity of the shank is necessary. Proceedings of the 7th Symposium on Footwear Biomechanics. Cleveland, Ohio, USA. Nigg, B.M., Segesser, B. (1992). Biomechanical and orthopaedic concepts in sport shoe construction. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 24, 595-602. Nokes, L., Fairclough, J.A., Mintowt-Czyz, W.J., Mackie, I., and Williams, J., (1984). Vibrational analysis of human tibia: The effect of soft tissue on the output from skin mounted accelerometers. Journal of Biomedical Engineering, 6, 223-226. Roi, G.S., and Bianchedi, D. (2008). The Science of Fencing Implications for Performance and Injury Prevention. Sports Medicine, 38, 465-481. Shorten, M.R., and Winslow, D.S. (1992). Spectral Analysis of Impact Shock During Running. International Journal of Sports Biomechanics, 8, 288-304. Stacoff, A., Denoth, J., Kaelin, X., and Stuessi, E. (1988). Running injuries and shoe construction: some possible relationships. International Journal of Sport Biomechanics 4, 342-357. Whittle, M.W. (1999). The generation and attenuation of transient forces beneath the foot; a review. Gait and Posture, 10, 264-275. Wild, AM., Jaeger, C., Poehl, C., Werner, A., Raab, P., and Krauspe, R. (2001). Morbidity profile of high performance fencers. Sportverletz Sportschaden, 15, 59-61. Zemper, E.D., Harmer, P.A. (1996). Fencing. In D.J. Calne, C.G. Caine, K.J. Lindner (ed.), Epidemiology of Sports Injuries (pp 186-195). Champaign, IL Human Kinetics.
Friday, January 17, 2020
Employment is important for every individual. Employment is a source of income whether it is a private job or a government job. Depending on education, experience and caliber, individuals are offered jobs in specific cadres. Every job carries certain responsibilities whether it is a labor job, clerical job or a senior management job.There are certain management principles that are required to be practicedÃ for every employee at every level of job functioning. Government and businesses cannot function without people and in fact efficient employees are the greatest asset for organizations to grow towards profit and development. A question arises as to how governments have a role to play in private sector.The answer to this question is, in order to bring transparency in private sector businesses, there are certain legal enactments i.e. Employment relations Act 2004, Companies Act, Corporate Insolvency Law and many other legal rules for every purpose of public or private sector.Ã T hese enactments contain rules and regulations which can be referred whenever there is a requirement for fulfilling a provision.For instance Employment Relations Act 2004 states about employee and employer relations and how these have to be maintained which is required to be followed by both private sector and public sector, which reduces a number of conflicts and disputes that could occur without these legal rules.The relation of employee and employer is slightly a difficult task to manage with, and at one point of time, appears much easier depending on the situation.Ã However, every employee and employer have to be careful with the jobs being held with in respective organizations.There are many human resource management books which detail and discuss about employee and employer relations within office environment as well with office related aspects of management. Management of relation involves both personal manners as well treating others with respect.In management, there are a lso barriers of culture, origin of a person and much in respect of working environment. Especially in industrial sector, where there are quite a number of workers and who carry grievances or demands in paying high salaries, asking for more number of leisure hours or bonus payments etc., The skill and efficiency of management is evident in handling trade unions of industries.Trade unions are very tough to deal with and when the demands of union are not met with, closure of factories, stopping production or working on strike, or slow production and such other activities are undertaken. Therefore, management of industries have to be extremely careful with industrial workers.Governments in order to assist industries have enacted Employment Relations Act 2004. This Act specially deals with labor laws and trade union rights.Ã Ã UK government also introduced Employment Bill 2007 Ã¢â¬â 2008 which covers all aspects of employment law. This would further improve the effectiveness of e mployment law which would benefit employers, trade unions, individuals and public sector.Ã It also protects workers and encourages law-abiding businesses.Dispute resolutions is one area which is always required in workplaces.Ã In this regard, the Bill details about statutory procedures and related provisions about dismissal cases.Ã Apart from the above, the Bill clarifies about National Minimum Wage and which imposes penalties on non-compliance methods in respects of payment of salaries, calculation of arrears and also strengthens employment agencies.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Unexpected Critiques in Walden In Walden, Henry David Thoreau utilizes many different styles and themes to explain his ideas about shelter in further detail. Thoreau uses lists, long and short sentences, imagery, and different narrative voices. But out of all the things Thoreau uses to strengthen his argument, the most powerful is his unexpected comparisons and his sarcasm towards shelter. Thoreau uses these to get the reader interested, but more importantly it gets the reader to reconsider his/her contentment and think about how ridiculous society was then concerning shelter. Early in Economy, Thoreau writes about shelter in regards to how humans first came to use and later need shelter. The passage starts off by explainingÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This list changes the pace from the first couple of sentences about child rearing from eloquent, long sentences to a quick, easy-to-digest list. This progression of images shows how humans have advanced over time. But at the end of this list, Thoreau throws in a quick but simple sentence to change the rhythm, which changes the whole meaning of the list. Thoreau uses this quick sentence to make a very unexpected critique. He asserts that as humans we know not what it is to live in the open air, and our lives are domestic in more senses than we think (28). Here he pokes fun at societys inability to live without shelter. Thoreau includes himself by using we and our lives in this generalization to keep the reader from putting the book down After this change in pace Thoreaus sarcasm is more visible to the reader for he blatantly points out the basic need for shelter. He explains that from the hearth to the field is a great distance, even though that distance in reality is quite short (28). By saying this distance is far, Thoreau suggests that humans are so used to being indoors and under a roof that nature is something they never think about or want to be a part of. This obstruction between us and the celestial bodies, keeps creative minds from thinking at their best, according to Thoreau (28). The punch line that ties Thoreaus sarcasm together is in the last sentence, where Thoreau states that birds do not sing in cages, nor do dovesShow MoreRelatedMovie Analysis : Think For Yourself 1633 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbasic ideas we put upon ourselves in life. Conformity is also not run by one person or thing; it is us joined together making up these synthetic ideas. Along with Emerson, our other transcendentalist, Henry Dav id Thoreau, pleases us with his work, Walden. Walden revolves around the idea of simplicity and finding one s spirit. Thoreau also touches on the idea of needing the companionship of others. As a person living amongst this crowded world with peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s opinionated ideas I can only agree with EmersonRead MoreCritique Template For A Quantitative Study Essay2233 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesCritique Template for a Quantitative Study NURS 5052/NURS 6052 Week 6 Assignment: Application: Critiquing Quantitative, Qualitative, or Mixed Methods Studies (due by Day 7 of Week 7) Date: 7/17/2016 Your name: Adetola Stephen Okutubo Article reference (in APA style): Sofroniadou, S., Revela, I., Smirloglou, D., Makriniotou, I., Zerbala, S., Kouloubinis, A., ... Iatrou, C. (2012). Linezolid versus Vancomycin Antibiotic Lock Solution for the Prevention of Nontunneled Catheter-relatedRead MoreThe Barriers of Implementing Total Quality Management in Syria19376 Words Ã |Ã 78 Pageswithout being negotiated with other members at the organization. Employees at the bottom line only have to do what they were told to do and report any faced problem. They perform their duties without even thinking about their right to negotiate or critique the decisions made by empowered people. And this keeps them quite when they know that the decision made is not effective. 4.4 Recruitment and Promotion Standards As Syria has a collectivist society, people interact socially and economically