Friday, March 20, 2020

Aims and objectives of the study Essays

Aims and objectives of the study Essays Aims and objectives of the study Essay Aims and objectives of the study Essay The primary research objective of this study is to determine and discuss the key success factors (KSFs) that would ensure the success of a Russian-foreign venture agreement. The study will in particular focus on the IJVs immersed in the oil and natural gas industry. To implement this research objective, the research study aims to examine the history and trends on international joint ventures (IJVs) in Russia, the problems they encounter, and the KSFs that will ensure the success of starting IJVs in Russia. The study will make use of a review of related literature and case study analysis. Even though the thesis will focus on IJVs involved in the oil and natural gas industry, it will cite various case studies of other companies in other industries as well, in order to get a more comprehensive understanding of effective strategies for successful IJVs in Russia. In answering the primary research objective of this research, the thesis will further explore the following secondary research objectives: To provide a background on joint ventures (JVs) and international joint ventures (IJVS) as a whole, particularly as to their advantages and disadvantages. To understand the role of IJVs in Russia’s gas and oil industry. To highlight the problems that IJVs encounter in Russia which contribute to the high failure rate of many of these business arrangements. To identify the key success factors (KSF) that determine the success of IJVs in Russia, through case study analysis of IJVs in Russia. To examine the importance of the identified key success factors and the contribution of each factor to the success of IJVs. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This research study is relevant because it will seek to improve the success rate of international joint ventures (IJVs) investing in the Russian oil and gas industry by identifying the key success factors (KSF) that will ensure such success. The Russian oil and gas sector generated total revenues of $123. 5 billion in 2005. In 2003, the country’s energy exports accounted for one-fourth of Russia’s gross domestic product (GDP), opening the floodgates to droves of foreign investors excited to cash in on this booming industry (Energy Information Administration, 2005). Russia has also overtaken Saudi Arabia as the world’s leading oil and fuel exporter (Datamonitor, 2006). A huge bulk of investments in the Russian oil and gas industry comes from IJVs arrangements where many organizations set up jointly-owned business entities while at the same time maintaining their independence from each other (Johnson Scholes, 1999). Major American, Japanese, Norwegian, and English petroleum organizations have set up IJVs with local organizations in Russia, but despite the numbers, the failure rate of IJVs have by far outnumbered their success rates (Katsioloudes Isichenko, 2007). The alarming rate of failure of numerous IJVs in Russia poses as a serious threat to the development of the Russian energy industry, and on the country’s economic growth as a whole (Katsioloudes Isichenko, 2007). As such, this thesis is significant in that it will seek to provide recommendations that may help in reversing the increasing failure rates for IJVs in Russia’s energy industry. The findings of this research study can serve as guidelines that will help to ensure the success of an IJV in Russia, which in turn will contribute to the further development of the country’s gas and oil industry, and ultimately, to the improvement of the Russian economy as a whole. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY A joint venture (JV) constitutes a separate legal entity which is jointly-owned and jointly-managed by the two or more parent organizations, or the â€Å"venturers. † As a general rule, a JV must have the following essential characteristics: 1) a separately identifiable joint venture entity; 2) an ownership interest in such entity by each joint venturer; and 3) an active management involvement, or deliberate abdication of the right to such involvement, by each joint venturer (Eco-Legal and Management Advisory Services Limited, 2003). There are two kinds of joint ventures: the equity joint venture and the contractual joint venture. Joint ventures involve a 50/50 participation of both venture partners, wherein each contributes 50 percent of the equity in return for 50 percent participating control. The degrees of ownership and control, as well as the expected returns, are results of negotiations between the two contracting parties. Problems may arise at this point when parties negotiate their expected valuations or returns, particularly if the joint venture happens to be in a country with a controlled economy or when one party is contributing land or goods and that party happens to be from a country where such land or goods may not have readily ascertainable free market values (Eco-Legal and Management Advisory Services Limited, 2003). There are certain advantages to this 50/50 arrangement, the most obvious is that both partners are equally at risk and have equal rights and obligations as to each other. The Eco-Legal and Management Advisory Services Limited (2003) further provides for the following advantages for organizations that enter into JV agreements: A company with insufficient resources may utilize the financial resources of another company with similar needs or interests, especially with regard to embarking on a particular project. In such a case, both companies will bear the share the potential risks involved in the new venture and reduce the burden of investment costs since all expenses are split into two between the two companies involved. The parties may extend their capabilities and business opportunities by pooling together their resources, technology, and expertise. Either one of the parties may expand its market power or even expand into a foreign market with which it has no familiarity. A JV agreement is especially helpful because the venturer who is located in the country or area where the other venturer wishes to expand is more familiar with local business customs and trends. The challenges in forming JVs are not limited to those challenges experienced for Russian JVs and international joint ventures (IJVs) alone. Studies show that a majority of large JVs encounter serious financial or managerial problems within the first two years of operation. Some common difficulties encountered by joint ventures in general are listed below (Hewitt Associates, 2008): The philosophy governing expectations and objectives of the joint venture agreement is unclear. There is an imbalance in the level of investment and expertise brought to the joint venture by the two parent organizations. The senior leadership and management teams for the joint venture receive inadequate identification, support, and compensation. The JV partners possess disparate, and usually conflicting, organizational cultures and operational styles. The JV’s size is modest compared to the two parent organizations. Thus, poor or unclear leadership, different corporate cultures, and a poor integration process contribute greatly to the failure of JVs, by analogy, of IJVs as well. Similar to the challenges outlined by Hewitt Associates (2008), the Eco-Legal and Management Advisory Services Limited (2003) provide for the following similar challenges that may lead to the failure of JV agreements: In sum, entering into a joint venture agreement is definitely not for the faint of heart. JVs offer a host of benefits to the parties involved, but both parties cannot simply enter into an agreement without carefully weighing out the risks involved and coming to terms with goals, expectations, and capabilities of each party. What makes it especially harder for JVs and IJVs in Russia is that in addition to the challenges that JVs in general have to deal with – whether or not they are located in Russia – they also have to deal with other problems that are unique to the Russian business industry and economic milieu.

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

7 HUGE signs you aced your interview

7 HUGE signs you aced your interview Sometimes it’s all too apparent when a job interview hasn’t gone well- maybe there’s a cringeworthy statement you wish you could take back, or an icy glance from an interviewer who doesn’t seem to find your small talk very charming. But what differentiates an okay job interview from one you’ve just rocked? Here are some key signals that you’ve had a great interview. 1. The interviewer has positive body languageInterviewers are professionals (ideally!), but they’re also human. Sometimes the earliest indicator that things are going well is the immediate physical feedback you get. Is the person engaged in the conversation, or is she just asking rote questions? Are you getting a lot of positive affirmation, like nods and smiles or verbal agreement? This isn’t a foolproof way to gauge your progress (hey, some people are just very friendly), but it’s a great first clue.2. The interviewer asks you about your interest in the jobIf the interviewer asks you point blank if you’d be interested in the job, it’s not quite a job offer, but it’s a very positive sign. It may mean the person thinks that you’re a good candidate and they want to test out whether you’re serious about it before moving you to the next step. If the interviewer asks you about where else you’re interviewing, that’s also a good sign. If they weren’t interested in you, they probably wouldn’t be trying to gauge the competition or scoping out whether you’re likely to accept a potential job offer.3. You set up a second interview on the spotThe signs don’t get much clearer than this one. If they actively invite you back for another round of interviews, you’re in very good shape. But don’t forget that while a second interview is a great omen, it still means another round of prep. Aft er all, there could be other candidates coming back for a second interview as well, so it’s important not to go into the next interview thinking you have a job offer on the table just yet.4. You get a personal tourIf your interviewer brings you around the office to show you the space and introduce you to people, or calls people in to meet you, it shows they’re already thinking of you as a potential member of the team.5. The interview goes longA short interview isn’t necessarily a dealbreaker, but if your interview goes longer than the allotted time it likely means that the interviewer is interested enough to have a meaningful, in-depth conversation about the position and your qualifications for it. Particularly if you’re meeting with a single interviewer, a long conversation points to a great level of engagement.6. The interviewer goes into day-to-day job specificsMost interviewers will give an overview of the open position to make sure you understand the job. But if the interviewer takes the time to do a deep dive into the job’s responsibilities and integrates you into the discussion (â€Å"you would be doing X,† â€Å"you would be leading this project,† etc.), it suggests they already see you as a good fit.7. Your thank you note nets a responseNo matter what, you need to send a thank you note as a follow-up to your interview. The interviewer, however, is not obligated to respond in any way. If you send your thank you and you get a response (especially a quick one), it shows that your interviewer is engaged in the process and likely had a positive reaction to your conversation. Bonus points if there are specific references to a point you discussed, because that can help you tell if it’s just an automatic response on their part or a genuinely warm reaction. Tone is everything here.The waiting game after an interview can be one of the most frustrating parts of any job hunt. If you’re able to walk out of the room with any of these positive outcomes behind you, it can help reassure you that things really did go well, and that you’re on the right track for a second interview- or maybe even that job offer.