Thursday, October 31, 2019
Art history, native american art - Essay Example This paper will discuss the native history of American art. Native American art comprises of oil, pottery, basketry, wood, leather and water or sand paintings (Phillips and Berlo 10). The creativity that is involved in American art is regarded as sacred and limitless. According to the Americans, the use of art is continually identified as a form of expression. Their artistic works present their love for the environment. In their native way of life, the Americans considered art as a symbol. They usually made their artwork through the use of materials such as fabric, clay, feathers and rocks among others. In the Native American lifestyle, basket weaving was regarded as the most popular form of artistic work (Phillips and Berlo 13). In this case, basket weaving served a twofold purpose. Most of the American artists used corn husks and reeds to make complex woven baskets. Thereafter, the material was dyed to create tribal art on the basket. The final product was a beautiful, artistic piece of work that was also used as a normal basket. The weaving practice was quite prevalent in the Native American era, since; women would spend hours weaving to create colorful baskets. In most cases, the baskets were made from vegetable fibers (Phillips and Berlo 13). Moreover, there were other materials that were used in weaving of the baskets. The most common materials that were used apart from vegetable fibers include cedar bark, native grass and ivory carvings. The material used in making the basket defined the type of basket being made. Recently, weaving leads to ecological activism. Individuals from the Navajo tribe were well conversant with the weaving practice. They even made blankets from woven reeds. Most literary scholars assert that, the Native Americans were the first individuals to design beautiful implements. Furthermore, every artistic object they made entailed a detailed rationale. They developed different forms of artistic
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Sports nutrition -cyclists - Essay Example During an athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s activity, the body uses stored carbohydrates which raise epinephrine and norepinephrine level which causes glucagon to increase. Increase in glucagon converts glycogen into glucose which is supplied to the blood stream for use in the activity. Carbohydrates are stored in the form of simple sugars (glucose, fructose, and galactose) in the body which makes it easier for absorption. A gram of carbohydrates is equal to four calories of energy, and an athlete can store up to 1200 grammes of glycogen (4800 calories) for an activity (Seebohar, 2004). The amount of time an athlete can rely on stored carbohydrates will vary with various factors such as the weather and the intensity of the activity. Protein anabolism refers to development of complex protein molecules from simpler ones. It occurs after hard work or after the body does vigorous activities to build or repair body tissues and also to restore broken down tissues. Anabolism sees to it that amino acids, which form proteins, are broken down to form final protein. Proteins help in enzyme and hormone formation and production which help in body functions and reactions, this plays a key role in the body such as protection against diseases, and also can be used to produce energy if insufficient carbohydrates and fats are available. Catabolism of proteins is the process of breaking down proteins and its components to simpler ones. During exercise, protein catabolism is an inevitable process in the body, and this is as a result of strain of muscles, tissues and organs. The body is in turn expected to repair the damaged areas in the body so as to reduce breakdown. Protein catabolism occurs during strain, hard work and may also occur during damages or injuries to the body. Fat as another nutrient required by the body can also be used as fuel by the body, and this varies with the activities in the body. Although fats produce low
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Security Plan Scenario : Widget Warehouse is a medium sized e-commerce company that supports 200 customers daily. The student has been hired to assist in the development of a new security policy. An assignment has been received to analyse the current network of Widget Warehouse. The Widget Warehouse network is comprised of an intranet with 200 users, and a public Web server that processes the company e-commerce traffic. The internal network is logically divided into an information technology (IT) department branch, an accounting branch, a customer service branch, a sales branch, and an inventory branch. Step 1 Create a list of various attack intruders: a. The IT department for Widget Warehouse has a general understanding of security but they are very inexperienced with the various attacks an intruder can use to exploit their network resources. Create a list of various attacks intruders can use maliciously against the Widget Warehouse network. Also, provide a brief description of possible attacks, including their purpose. Attack Name Attack Description Brute force attack This attack uses a specific character set (such as A-Z, 0-9) and computes the hash for every possible password made up of those characters. Eavesdropping When an attacker is eavesdropping on our communications, it is referred to as sniffing or snooping. The ability of an eavesdropper to monitor the network is generally the biggest security problem that administrators face in an enterprise. Without strong encryption services that are based on cryptography, our data can be read by others as it traverses the network. Denial-of-Service Attack The denial-of-service attack prevents normal use of your computer or network by valid users. After gaining access to the network the attacker can send invalid data to applications or network services, which causes abnormal termination or behaviour of the applications or services, attacker can flood a computer or the entire network with traffic until a shutdown occurs because of the overload, attacker can Block traffic, which may result in loss of access our network resources by the users. Data Modification After an attacker has read our data, the next logical step is to alter it. An attacker can modify the data in the packet without the knowledge of the sender or receiver. Even if we do not require confidentiality for all communications or we do not want any of the messages to be modified in transit. For example, if one is exchanging purchase requisitions, he does not want the items, amounts, or billing information to be modified. Identity Spoofing (IP Address Spoofing) Most networks and operating systems use the IP address of a computer to identify a valid entity. In certain cases, it is possible for an IP address to be falsely assumedÃ¢â¬â identity spoofing. An attacker might also use special programs to construct IP packets that appear to originate from valid addresses inside the corporate intranet. After gaining access to the network with a valid IP address, the attacker can modify, reroute, or delete your data. Password-Based Attacks A common denominator of most operating system and network security plans is password-based access control. Thus the access rights to a computer and network resources are determined by the person, the user name and the password. Older applications do not always protect identity information as it is passed through the network for validation. This might allow an eavesdropper to gain access to the network by posing as a valid user. Sniffer Attack A sniffer is an application or device that can read, monitor, and capture network data exchanges and read network packets. If the packets are not encrypted, a sniffer provides a full view of the data inside the packet. Even encapsulated (tunnelled) packets can be broken open and read unless they are encrypted and the attacker does not have access to the key. Man-in-the-Middle Attack The man-in-the-middle attack occurs when someone between you and the person with whom you are communicating is actively monitoring, capturing, and controlling your communication transparently. For example, the attacker can re-route a data exchange. When computers are communicating at low levels of the network layer, the computers might not be able to determine with whom they are exchanging data. Trojan horses and worms Trojan horses are often associated with viruses which are they are dangerous programs that masquerade as benign programs. Step 2 Make a List of Security Requirements: a. One of the first steps in creating a security policy is gathering the requirements for the company. Create a list of questions to ask the Widget Warehouse executives, in order to better understand their security requirements and business goals. 1. Widget Warehouse requirements: a) What are the specifications required for the network operation? b) What access controls are needed to be applied on the users? c) Which departments are needed to be interconnected? d) What are the login policies and to which extent are they needed to be applied? (day, time range etc) e) A list of various applications which are required for the different branches? f) To what extent the policies are to be applied on the users? g) How group policies should be applied on the server which allows the users to access information? h) What are the policies to be implied on the web access? i) Specifications of file policies to all the users? j) What are the password policies needed to be applied on the users? Step 3 Identify Security Implementation Options a. Based on the questions, it is discovered that mission-critical information is passed between remote departments in the company over the LAN and the Internet. What security implementation could be used to keep this information out of unauthorized hands? Provide a brief explanation with each answer. Company will have the information about their employees, customers, products, sales, and financial status. Most of this information is now collected, processed and stored on electronic computers and transmitted across networks to other computers. Should confidential information about businesses customers or finances or new product line fall into the hands of a competitor, such a breach of security could lead to lost business, law suits or even bankruptcy of the business. Protecting confidential information is a business requirement, and in many cases also an ethical and legal requirement. In the company one department is needed to access the information of another department. We should maintain a firewall to the server. And we have to give the access between the departments where it is required. Authorization: Authorization addresses the question: what can you do? It is the process that governs the resources and operations that the authenticated client is permitted to access. Resources include files, databases, tables, rows, and so on, together with system-level resources such as registry keys and configuration data. Operations include performing transactions such as purchasing a product, transferring money from one account to another, or increasing a customers credit rating. Virtual Private Network Ã¢â¬ËVPN One of the most important solutions to viruses and hackers threats is VPN  that makes the network between companies and users secured; it is also authenticated and encrypted for security. VPNs provide the ability for two offices to communicate with each other in such a way that it looks like theyre directly connected over a private leased line. Basically, a VPN is a private network that uses a public network usually the Internet to connect remote sites or users together. Instead of using a dedicated, real world connection such as leased line, a VPN  uses virtual connections routed through the Internet from the companys private network to the remote site or employee. IPSec: IPSec  is defined as a set of standards that verifies, authenticates, and encrypts data at the IP packet level. It is used to provide data security for network transmissions. IPSec is a suite of protocols that allows secure, encrypted communication between two computers over an unsecured network. It has two goals: to protect IP packets, and to provide a defense against network attacks. Step 4 Create a Description of the Security Wheel a. The Widget Warehouse executives do not completely understand the continual process of security. They appear to be under the impression that once a security policy is implemented it will be sufficient for an extended period of time. Create a description of the security wheel and discuss the benefits of such a model. Sol: The network security wheel is a methodology of how the network security of an enterprise is maintained. Here the notion of Ã¢â¬Ëwheel is a depiction that says that network security is a continuous process. In other words, in order to keep the wheel rolling have a continual security policy, the security engineers in an enterprise should always maintain four steps: Step Name Step Description 1. Secure We have to secure our networks. This is the step where we implement our security solutions in the enterprise. Firewalls, authentication, encryption are included in this step 2. Monitor This is the step where we monitor our security solutions implemented in the previous step. We should monitor if a security breach exists. We can think about IDS or IPS in this stage. This step can also be used to validate our security solutions. 3. Test This is the step where the security engineers/specialists try to break their own security solutions. We can think of this step as penetration testers kind of job. 4. Improve This step is a continuation of the previous step. Once we find a breach or something that hinders employees productivity, then we can improve it here. This step may also be a good place to change our security policies. Step 5 Passive Monitoring a. The management of Widget Warehouse wishes to see some of the available options in security monitoring. As the consultant, suggest that a passive monitoring scheme may be an option they should pursue. Write a description of passive monitoring that is to be presented to Widget Warehouse management. Sol: Security monitoring focuses on the activities and condition of network traffic and network hosts. Activity monitoring is primarily performed to assess policy compliance, identify non-compliance with the institutions policies, and identify intrusions and support an effective intrusion response. Because activity monitoring is typically an operational procedure performed over time, it is capable of providing continual assurance. Through passive monitoring, a security admin can gain a thorough understanding of the networks topology: what services are available, what operating systems are in use, and what vulnerabilities may be exposed on the network. Much of this data can be gathered in an automated, non-intrusive manner through the use of standard tools, Step 6 Explain Using a Security Policy a. Explain to the IT Department how using a security policy can provide advantages to the company as a way to secure sensitive information. 1. Developing a security policy. Ã¢â¬ ¢ By using a security policy, we can achieve confidentiality, integrity and availability over the network. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The security policy addresses constraints on functions and flow among them, constraints on access by external systems and adversaries including programs and access to data by the users of different branches. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Information will be protected against unauthorised access. Ã¢â¬ ¢ By using access control lists and password policies, certain important data can be protected from unauthorised users. Ã¢â¬ ¢ All breaches of Information Security, actual or suspected, can be reported and investigated. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Retaining confidential and proprietary information. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Securing applications Ã¢â¬ ¢ Assuring standardization and consistency Ã¢â¬ ¢ At the network level, we can minimise the spread and impact of harmful worms Ã¢â¬ ¢ and viruses. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Business requirements for the availability of information and information systems will be met.
Friday, October 25, 2019
Nuclear Energy One of the key factors needed to continue human progress is an energy source that is not only adequate but plentiful and unharmful to our environment. These requirements are very difficult to meet. As of right now, most of our energy comes from the combustion of coal, oil and natural gas. Ã¢â¬Å"They will last quite a while but will probably run out or become harmful in tens to hundreds of years.Ã¢â¬ (Source 2) The effects they have on the environment are also an issue. Many scientists are searching for other forms of energy. Nonreplicable energy sources such as solar energy are being explored; however, these methods are not highly developed and are very expensive. Nuclear energy, therefore, appears to be the best alternative since it is cheaper and because it doesn't emit carbon dioxide into the atmosphere like the combustion of the fossil fuels do. Nuclear energy comes from the fission of uranium, plutonium, or thorium or the fusion of hydrogen into helium. Ã¢â¬Å"Fission is defined as the splitting of atomic nuclei spontaneously or because of the absorption of a nucleus.Ã¢â¬ (Source 1) It produces radioactivity in the form of heat, smaller nuclei, and neutrons. Fusion is just the opposite. It is the coming together of two atomic nuclei. Most power plants today used the fission of enriched uranium to produce nuclear energy using a reactor. Nuclear energy is a very important energy source to the United States. It is inexpensive and is gaining ground as the main energy resource replacement to the fossil fuels. Today twenty percent of the electricity in the United States comes from 109 licensed power reactors in the United States. Why not just completely switch over to nucl... ...ty of the process. Small accidents can lead to huge problems. For example, a small explosion can lead to increased cases of cancer over a very large area. Also, they question if the process is truly cheaper. If the plants were made safer, would it still be cheaper? Or will the costs of safeguarding the plant raise the cost? The disposal of nuclear waste is also an issue that must be figured out before one can decide if nuclear energy truly is the next best alternative. My opinion is that we should study non-dispensable energy resources such as solar and figure out how to make it less expensive and develop it so that we can use it to its fullest potential. Works Cited Class Notes http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/progress/nuclear-faq.html http://members.iinet.net.au/~hydros/nuclear/nuclear_energy.htm http://www.ecolo.org/
Thursday, October 24, 2019
Nurses are the largest work force in the healthcare industry. The increasing demands for nurses opt to increase the quality of care given by these nurses. The Institute of Medicine (IOM, 2010) states that patients Ã¢â¬Å"deserve the care that centered on their unique needs and not what is most convenient for the health care professionalsÃ¢â¬ . Nursing practice has changed significantly since the beginning of the profession secondary to increased demand for high quality care given and for the safety of the nurses and the patients. In order to overcome these challenges the Institute of Medicine (IOM) created a report that served as a foundation for the future and advancement of nursing. IOM reported that, Ã¢â¬Å"Nurses have the opportunity to play a central role in transforming the healthcare system to create a more accessible, high quality, and value-driven environment for patientsÃ¢â¬ . (Institute of Medicine [IOM], 2010, pg. 85) The IOM report, Ã¢â¬ The Future of Nursing: Lead ing Change, Advancing HealthÃ¢â¬ , emphasized on different topics with regards to the future of nursing especially the importance of nursing education, nursing practice and the roles of nurses as a leader in the healthcare system. The goal of nursing education is for the nurses to be prepared to face the increasing needs of a diverse population of patients and to deliver a safe and quality patient care. In addition, the transformation of nursing education is encouraged to prepare new nurses to work hand in hand with other healthcare professionals in different settings. These changes are needed because of technological advancements, older patient population and increasing complexity of the patient conditions. Care in the acute care setting and outside the hospital has become more complex as well. Nurses have to be trained on flexibility and ability to take in more roles than what is expected when they graduate nursing. With this note, advancement in the education curriculum and changes are needed to compensate for these demands. Nurses should be able to have evidence-based practice care, collaborative skills with other professionals, be proficient with the new technologies and even more skilled on the acute and chronic healthcare settings. Most hospitals are teaching hospitals and require more BSN graduate nursesÃ in their workforce. The IOM has a view to increase BSN nurses working in hospitals from 50% to 100%. In spite of this view, IOM set a goal of having BSN nursing percentage of 80% by 2020. This is Ã¢â¬Å"necessary to move the nursing workforce to an expanded set of competencies, especially in the domains of community and public health, leadership, systems improvement and change, research and health policyÃ¢â¬ . (IOM, 2010, pg. 173) In addition, having a BSN degree is a good foundation for nurses to advance to a higher education, APRNs and Doctorate levels, that will in turn advance nurses to research, faculty nurses to teach future nurses, ability to participate in creating healthcare policies and leadership roles. IOM also encourages having bridge programs from RN to BSN and having a residency program that will allow nurses to gain more skills, experience and knowledge and alleviate the stress around new nurses that are being thrown out of the real world without enough exposure and understanding of the profession. There are plenty of barriers in accomplishing these goals but with proper incentives, motivation and encouragement that are given to nurses, it is not impossible to have a better future in nursing education and have more educated and advanced nursing workforce in our society today. IOM also emphasized the importance of advancing the nursing practice to the community and not just concentrate in the acute care setting due to the increasing needs of the population and changes in the healthcare system. The outdated policies governing nursing scope of practice is a hindrance to the advancement of nursing practice and because of this patients are limited to access a better quality of care. IOM stressed on their report that a necessary alteration in nursing practice is needed to provide patient-centered care; deliver more primary as opposed to specialty care; deliver more care in the community rather than the acute care setting; provide seamless care; enable all health professionals to practice to the full extent of their education, training, and competencies; and foster inter-professional collaboration. (IOM, 2010, pg. 86-87) Nurses are encouraged to pursue their education to Advanced Practical Registered Nurses (APRN) due to a shortage of primary care professionals in the acute and mainly in the community healthcare setting. APRNs are knowledgeable, well trained and proficient enough to provide safe and high quality of care without the supervision of a primary doctor. IOM believes that changes in the regulations and expanding the scope of practice of nurses and of APRNs are necessary so that they can have the ability to practice and make decisions more independently. Ã¢â¬Å"The committee believes all health professionals should practice to the full extent of their education and training so that more patients may benefitÃ¢â¬ . (IOM, 2010, pg. 96) Again having bridge programs and residency programs for new nurses will help with the advancement of nursing practice. Redefining the roles and extending the scope of nursing practice is highly recommended by the IOM for the future of the nursing profession and to keep up with the evolution of the healthcare environment. Another vision that the IOM has is nurses as leaders in healthcare. It is time for nurses to move forward from bedside roles and start being active as leaders and partners with other healthcare professionals in delivering high quality care to patients. Together with the changes of nursing education and nursing practice, nurses as leaders are required to finally reach the goal of an advanced healthcare system. IOMÃ¢â¬â¢s vision Ã¢â¬Å"specifically challenges nurses to demonstrate full partnership with physicians and other healthcare professionals in redesigning U.S healthcare.Ã¢â¬ (Porer-OÃ¢â¬â¢Grady, 2011, pg. 33) in addition the IOM Ã¢â¬Å"report suggests that the nursing profession must produce leaders at every level of the system and accept key leadership positions in policy, politics, organizations, and practice.Ã¢â¬ (Porer-OÃ¢â¬â¢Grady, 2011, pg. 33) TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s advancements in technology, nurses have an important role in research and they assist in developing evidence-based practice care to maintain safety. Nurses are the main caregivers and they understand very well the healthcare process. Nurses also play a vital role in delivering quality patient care through facilitation, coordination and making sure everything is at ease. So it is imperative that nurses be involved in policy making and provide strategies to improve care delivery and ensure qualityÃ care. With these expectations put into nurses, it is every nurseÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility to advance in their career, through education, be very well rounded with competencies and be active partners and be future leaders in the healthcare system. In conclusion, IOM has a very broad insight and goals with regards to the future of nursing. In order to achieve these goals, the importance of advancing nursing education and practice are emphasized as well as having more nursing leaders in the healthcare system. Having more BSN graduate nurses in the acute care settings and having more APRNs extending their services to the community is going to facilitate the advancement that the IOM views. Changing policies and extending the scope of practice for nurses to avoid limiting their abilities to practice and taking advantage of the nurseÃ¢â¬â¢s full capabilities is another goal that the IOM envisions. Lastly, nurses are seen more involved as leaders for a successful reform and in turn provide a better quality and safe care to patients. References Porer-OÃ¢â¬â¢Grady, T. (2011). Future of Nursing Special:Leadership at All Levels. Nursing Management, 32-37. Retrieved from http://www.nursingcenter.com/lnc/journalarticle?Article_ID=1163290 The future of nursing: leading change, advancing health. (2010). Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. Retrieved from http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12956
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
Question 1 (a)Brands and Products Zalora carries ranges from prices as low as $15 to brands that are more of high end or luxury styles. The brands that they carries exceeds over eight hundred various brands and they are being classified clearly into the various wide category such as women, men and children and they are further being classified into the various apparels types so that it is easier for their consumers to choose the products that they want to purchase.It enhances the simplicity of shopping and makes shopping easier. The probability of their success depending on the brands and products is high as they have various brands that are exclusive and not available in major shopping malls such as Feiyue which is popular with sneakers as well as Australian brands Ladakh and cult label Ksubi. Thus, the exclusivity would be one of the major factors that will bring the online boutique to its success. The online store does not only sell clothing.They have diversified and carry much mo re than apparels. They sell items such as exclusive character sun screen from famous cartoon characters as well as ear phones to cater other needs of their consumers. Thus, they have provided more options for their consumers and it creates a one stop shopping outlet for their consumers. Therefore, Zalora has also created another benefit to their customers such as convenience as a wide range of different types of products are available. (b)ShippingOne of the major selling points of Zalora is free Shipping Island wide in Singapore. They also do free delivery within 48 hours so that their customers could receive their items as soon as possible after purchasing it online. It would close up the gap of the waiting time for their purchase items to bring the shopping experience of their customers a better one. This could bring success to Zalora provided that they maintain the standards of their delivery time and keep the delivery period within the promised duration which is 48 hours.As ther e are complaints from customers that there has been late delivery, it could affect the credibility and reputation of the online store and creates a bad image or doubts from online consumers. Other channels such as online forum or facebook sites could be areas of discussion or sharing for consumers and word of mouth could cost the company to lose credibility and sales due to the late delivery of their products. Hence, although the 48 hours shipping is a good selling point for their store, upholding what they have promised their consumers is important as well to contribute to the success of their business. c)Prices Zalora carries have a relatively wide range in prices from an affordable low range price up to SGD$250 and above, the online store is not looking so much into market penetration however, they wish to do more than that to include market skimming as well as consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ expectations into their pricing strategy. As online boutiques are rather saturated in the market nowad ays, pricing is an important factor to determine the success of the boutique. There are products that are more affordable and lower in prices.This pricing strategy is to attract more of the consumers that are looking for items that are of better deals and have more of an intention to shop budget. Zalora had looked into this factor and catered for the needs for this group of consumers. Next, Zalora had also products priced at a higher price. The company however, said that it was a Ã¢â¬Å"deliberate moveÃ¢â¬ . As there are various different kinds of consumers in the market, Zalora hopes to capture all of them. There are also consumers that look for some items that are premium and exclusive.The items that Zalora offers that are of a higher price range are leather products such as python skin clutch bag and alligator leather bags. These will attract consumers with needs such as exclusivity even though the pricing may be steeper than regular bags offered in other websites or market. (d )Level of consumer service As online boutiques are different from shopping in a physical store as the consumer largely depend on photos and measurements to decide on their purchase, consumer services are important to the online boutique. In ZaloraÃ¢â¬â¢s website, they have included five areas in their customer service section in their boutique.The sections that are included would be contact information of the company, frequently asked questions, size measurements, shipping details as well as fashion glossary. Zalora had done well in this aspect as all the information provided in the various segment are detailed and specific. An example would be in the size measurements, there are pictorial guides as well as illustrations accompanying the photos. It helps consumers to minimise the confusion over what sizes they should buy and decreases the disappointment upon receiving the product if the product is not the size that the consumer wants.They have also included a section which is fash ion glossary that many other online boutiques do not have. It helps consumers understand the products better as it explains the various terms or materials of the product sold in the boutique. It helps the consumer to understand the product better. Lastly, they provide a lot of channels for payment methods such as by credit card, NETS as well as cash. It gives consumers options to choose from when deciding on the mode of payment. Hence, the probability of success is rather high in Singapore.