Sunday, February 16, 2020

Urban tourism, heritage and culture Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Urban tourism, heritage and culture - Essay Example Cultural and heritage centers are remarkable for contributing towards tourism industry, and generating income to towns and communities. Ð ¡ultures and heritages may be remarkable for construction of historical narratives regarding a culture, or concerning particular communities. In most cases, promotion of heritage centers and cultural heritages are not meant for tourism, but to preserve identity of communities for long periods. This heritage may be a form of symbolism, representing spectacular events, which may have shaped the lives and history of the people concerned. The main aspect in conservation of heritages is to maintain these symbols, and the unique characteristics of the preserved heritages are responsible for attracting both local and international tourists, as unique images of identity. Attraction of tourists to heritage sites leads to increased income generated through tourism activities in these regions, and urban tourism may result from this tourist activities. Many a uthorities have therefore reconditioned cities and towns near heritage centers to attract more tourists with an aim of not only preserving heritages, but to increase income in the tourism industry. In this report, the Amiens Cathedral of Notre- Dame in France will be considered as a precious heritage center that has been recognized and listed under UNESCO’s global heritage centers. Historical Background Amiens Cathedral, located in the heart of Picardy is among the largest Gothic churches constructed in the 13th century. The cathedral particularly stands unique in its construction, coherence of its plan, amazing fine displays of sculptures in the principle facade and the South transept, among other spectacular aspects (UNESCO, 2012). The cathedral was initiated in 1152 under the auspices of Bishop Evard, who made huge collections from clergy and people for this noble function (Brown 1846, 100). The cathedral was designed by Robert Lusarche as the architect, but the bishop and Lusdarche did not live to see the completion of the Cathedral that was completed in 1288 (Brown 1846, 100). However, the cathedral was first designed under the Romanesque architecture but was destroyed by fire in 1218, making reconstruction to be carried out in 1220 (UNESCO, 2012). Many of the statues and decorations in the cathedral were completed around 14th century; many years after the completion of the cathedral. The Amiens Cathedral is very different from other cathedrals and buildings in England, and other European locations in many aspects; including both style and design (Brown 1846, 101). This Cathedral is documented to be more advanced and perfect compared to other Gothic architectural works that were prominent during this period (Brown 1846, 101). The French cathedral is in many aspects different from many other cathedrals designed according to the Gothic architecture in this period, making it the most remarkable Gothic architectural work in history. The cathedral was r ecognized in 1972 by UNESCO under the World Heritage Site Agreement, but was to be officially listed as a world heritage in 1981 (Durand 2012, 9).This recognition changed the entire Amiens area, with the town being reconfigured as a tourist’s destination, leading to growth of more tourism infrastructure, consequently attracting thousands of tourists in this area, considering that France is one of the global leading tourist destinations today. Heritages leading to urban tourism Jenkins (1999) uses the word destination image a number of times and in different contexts. The image of any tourist destination is firstly designed in the cognitive opinion of the events, typical features, and character of the place. Increasing the information related to the image of such cities or places through organic means leads to enhanced clarity as Jenkins further elaborates, and this enhanced clarity leads to more tourists flocking these

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Indirect Theories and Moral Equality Theories on Kindness to Non-Human Essay

Indirect Theories and Moral Equality Theories on Kindness to Non-Human Animals - Essay Example This means that despite them being non-human animals that â€Å"are not rational, self-conscious beings capable of grasping the moral law† ( 63 ), they still have intrinsic moral worth. According to Kant, animals are not included in the human territory because only humans are capable of creating and understanding moral laws. This also means that while a human, being an â€Å"end in itself† ( 64 ) are not indebted to animals, kindness towards animals â€Å"will help develop good character in us and help us treat our fellow human beings with greater consideration† ( 63 ). Aside from making humans less likely to be cruel to other humans, kindness to animals makes human beings fulfill the indirect duties to humanity, which is a categorical imperative. Kant provides good examples of this claim. A dog, for example, may not have rights like humans do, but letting the dog suffer is a reflection of lack of humanity. Kind treatment of the dog, especially one that has been faithful over time, in not necessarily a human being’s duty towards the animal, but a human being’s duty of â€Å"humanity which it is his duty to show towards mankind† ( 64 ). Cruelty to animals, according to Kant, reflects in humans an immoral tendency that might be inflicted to fellow humans. However, despite the need to be kind to animals, they should not be treated as ends in themselves. Human beings â€Å"serve(s) the will as the objective ground for its self-determination† ( 63 ), yet this is not the same with non-human animals. Animals are a means to an end, and that end is man. This means that while man does not have the right to use other people in ways to serve another human’s end, the case is not the same with animals. Still, one must consider that kindness towards animals is an imperative that will ultimately serve the end purpose that is humanity. Human beings require respect because they are sovereign and have freedom. Such autonomy is important and a creature can only have it by having free will. Since animals do not have the capacity for reason and are not guided by consciousness, they do not really have free will, and are thus not autonomous. Kant has a strong point when he says that one can ask, â€Å"Why do animals exist?† ( 64 ). However, the question â€Å"Why does man exist?† is meaningless ( 64 ). It seems the argument is that animals exist for a specific purpose, and one of those purposes is to serve the goals of man. Kant’s arguments make strong points. However, some amendments may be done according to some principles of consideration. While animals do not have the capacity for reason, are not guided by consciousness, do not really have free will, and are not autonomous, humans should act with â€Å"consideration in satisfying (their) needs and interests† ( 76 ). Singer quotes Bentham: â€Å"The day may come when the rest of the animal creation may acquire those rights wh ich never could have been withholden from them but by the hand of tyranny† ( 76 ). Does this mean that consideration of one’s needs and interests apply to animals as well, and that giving animals rights is utterly necessary to reach this goal? To answer this requires not only a slight reconstruction of Kant’s views, but of Singer’s as well. What is required here is to determine if animals have morally significant needs and interests. The emphasis on moral significance means that withholding such could inflict unnecessary harm and suffering to non-human animals. Do animals have welfare or well-being that could benefit or be harmed by the non-existence of animal rights? It could be possible. However, saying this about a creature lacking logic, consciousness, and free will is tantamount to saying the same regarding a, say, car. Do animals have needs and interes